The Multiphasic Blood Analysis This information is for informational purposes only and is not a substitute for advice from a physician. If you have any concerns about your test results or want more information, talk with your physician. If you would like assistance in finding a physician, please call the WVU HealthLine at 304-598-6100 or toll-free at 800-982-8242. The Multiphasic Blood Analysis includes the following tests: HGB Hemoglobin is the protein that carries oxygen in the blood. Low hemoglobin levels may indicate anemia. Very high hemoglobin levels may cause diseases of the liver and other organs. HCT Hematocrit measures the volume of red blood cells. High hematocrit levels can be caused by dehydration or may indicate that there are too many red blood cells. Low hematocrit values can be a sign on anemia. Na The Sodium test measures the body’s water and electrolyte balance in order to evaluate symptoms that could be caused by abnormal sodium levels. High sodium levels can be caused by a high sodium diet or by dehydration. Low sodium levels can be caused by overhydration or by certain diseases. K Potassium is a vital electrolyte in the blood. High levels of potassium may indicate kidney damage, while low levels of potassium can be caused by poor diet or significant loss of water from the body. BUN Blood Urea Nitrogen measures the amount of urea in your blood in order to determine if kidneys are functioning normally or to monitor kidney disease. A high BUN value can indicate kidney injury or disease, or be caused by some medications. Low BUN values can be caused by overhydration. CREAT Creatinine evaluates kidney function. The test also is used to monitor the progress of kidney disease or to monitor the kidney function of people who take medication that can damage the kidneys. High creatinine levels can indicate serious kidney damage or disease. Low creatinine levels can indicate a decrease in muscle mass or severe liver disease. BUN/CR Blood Urea Nitrogen / Creatinine Ratio helps predict which conditions, such as dehydration, are causing abnormal Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine levels and decreased kidney functions. A high BUN-creatinine ratio occurs with sudden kidney failure or an obstruction in the urinary tract. A low BUN-creatinine ratio may be associated with a diet low in protein, cirrhoses, or a severe muscle injury. GLUCOSE Glucose tests can diagnose diabetes and monitor its treatment. They can also diagnose hypoglycemia, which is abnormally low blood sugar. A fasting (no food for 8 hours preceding the test) blood glucose level of 126 mg/dL or higher may require a second test to diagnose diabetes. A fasting glucose level below 40 mg/dL in women or below 50 mg/dL in men may indicate high amounts of insulin in the body. CA Calcium measures the level of calcium in the body that is not stored in the bones. To measure the level of calcium in the bones, a bone densitometry test is required. High levels of calcium in the blood may be caused by prolonged immobilization, kidney disease, tuberculosis, or cancer that has spread to the bones. Low levels of blood calcium can be caused by an underactive parathyroid gland, bone problems, or kidney disease. MG Magnesium is a vital electrolyte in the blood. High magnesium levels may be caused by kidney failure or dehydration. Low levels may indicate alcoholism, pancreatitis, or a diet low in magnesium. URIC ACID The Uric Acid test can be used to diagnose gout or reasons for recurrent kidney stones, or to check for kidney disease. High levels of uric acid may increase the chance of developing gout or kidney stones. Low levels may indicate liver or other disease. TRIG Elevated Triglyceride levels may increase the risk of developing coronary artery disease. Triglyceride levels below 150 mg/dL are desired. The liver converts excess calories from any source to triglycerides and stores them as body fat. CHOL Total Cholesterol refers to the total amount of cholesterol in the blood. This includes both high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL). High levels of cholesterol can be associated with an increased risk of heart disease. HDL CHOL High-Density Lipoprotein is called “good” cholesterol because it helps prevent cholesterol from building up in the blood. HDL is made up mostly of protein and helps to clear LDL from the body. High levels of HDL cholesterol may help to protect against heart disease. LDL CHOL Low Density Lipoprotein, or “bad” cholesterol, carries mostly fat and only a small amount of protein from the liver to other parts of the body. A high LDL level is considered a risk for coronary artery disease. TOTAL PROTEIN Total protein measures the total amount of protein in the blood. It can be used to investigate symptoms of disease or determine if a diet contains enough protein. High levels of total protein can indicate rare blood cancers, kidney disease, liver disease, dehydration, or a chronic infection. TOTAL BILI Total Bilirubin evaluates liver function and monitors liver disease or the effects of medication that can cause liver damage. It also determines if there is a blockage of the bile ducts, which can be caused by gallstones and other conditions. And it can be used to diagnose conditions, such as hemolytic anemia. High levels of bilirubin may occur because either too much is being produced or not enough is being eliminated due to infection or liver damage. ALKP Alkaline Phosphatase helps detect or monitor liver disease. It also helps evaluate bone abnormalities, such as those from bone tumors or Paget’s disease. Women in the third trimester of pregnancy have high levels of ALKP. Children have much higher levels due to rapid bone growth. Very high levels of ALKP can be caused by liver disorders or gallstones. Low levels can be caused by malnutrition or disorders that lead to malnutrition, such as celiac disease. AST(SGOT) Aspartate Aminotransferase helps to diagnose liver disease, especially hepatitis and cirrhosis. Very high levels (10 to 20 times higher than normal) of AST can indicate recent or severe liver damage. Levels 5 to 10 times higher than normal can indicate kidney, liver, or lung damage; heart failure or a heart attack; or some types of cancer. Low levels can indicate a Vitamin B6 deficiency or long-term kidney dialysis. ALT(SGPT) Alanine Aminotransferase helps to detect liver damage or disease, including hepatitis or cirrhosis. It is also used to monitor the effects of medications that can cause liver damage. Levels of ALT up to 50 times higher than normal may indicate poor blood flow to the liver or liver damage. Moderately high levels may be caused by liver damage, mononucleosis, or alcohol dependence. Low ALT levels can be caused by a urinary tract infection or malnutrition. PSA Prostate-Specific Antigen is released into a man’s blood by the prostate gland. The PSA test is used to detect or monitor prostate cancer. High PSA levels can indicate prostate cancer or an enlarged or inflamed prostate.